Le Forum mondial pour l’harmonisation des réglementations sur les véhicules (World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations) est un groupe de travail de la Commission économique des Nations unies pour l'Europe (UNECE). Il est aussi chargé de créer un ensemble uniforme de réglementations pour la conception des véhicules pour aider au commerce global.
Le forum travaille sur les réglementations qui couvrent la sécurité des véhicules, la protection de l'environnement, l'efficacité énergétique et la performance anti-vol.
Accord de 1958
The core of the Forum's work is based around the 1958 Agreement, formally titled "Agreement concerning the adoption of uniform technical prescriptions for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted and/or be used on wheeled vehicles and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of approvals granted on the basis of these prescriptions". This forms a legal framework whereby participating countries agree a common set of UNECE Regulations for type approval of vehicles and components. When an item is type approved for a regulation by one participating country, then the approval is accepted by all other participating countries.
Originally, the 1958 Agreement allowed participation of UNECE member countries only, but in 1995 the agreement was revised to allow non-UNECE members to participate.
Items approved as meeting an UNECE Regulation are marked with an E and a number, within in a circle. The number indicates which country approved the item, and other surrounding letters and digits indicate the date and precise regulation met.
Liste des pays participants
La plupart des pays, même s'ils ne participent pas formellement à l'accord de 1958, reconnaissent les règles de l'UNECE et autorisent l'utilisation et l'importation des véhicules approuvés par la Communauté européenne.
List of UNECE Regulations
As of 2007, there are 123 UNECE Regulations. Most regulations cover a single vehicle component or technology. A partial list of current regulations applying to passenger cars follows (different regulations may apply to heavy vehicles, motorcycles etc).
- R37 — filament lamps
- R48 — installation of lighting and light-signalling devices
- R3 — retro-reflecting devices
- R4 — illumination of rear registration plates
- R6 — direction indicators
- R7 — front and rear position (side) lamps, stop-lamps and end-outline marker lamps
- R19 — fog lamps
- R23 — reversing lights
- R38 — rear fog lamps
- R77 — parking lamps
- R87 — daytime running lamps
- R91 — side-marker lamps
- R119 — cornering lamps
- R123 — AFS lamps
- R31 — Halogen sealed-beam unit (HSB unit) motor vehicle headlamps emitting an asymmetrical passing beam or a driving beam or both
- R45 — Headlamp cleaners
- R98 — Headlamps equipped with gas-discharge light sources
- R99 — Gas-discharge light sources for use in approved gas-discharge lamp units of power-driven vehicles
- R112 — Headlamps emitting an asymmetrical passing beam or a driving beam or both and equipped with filament lamps
- R113 — Headlamps emitting a symmetrical passing beam or a driving beam or both and equipped with filament lamps
- R35 — arrangement of foot controls
- R39 — speedometer equipment
- R46 — rear-view mirrors
- R79 — steering equipment
- R11 — door latches and door retention components
- R13-H — braking (passenger cars)
- R14 — safety-belt anchorages
- R16 — safety-belts and restraint systems
- R27 — advance-warning triangles
- R42 — front and rear protective devices (bumpers, etc.)
- R43 — safety glazing materials and their installation on vehicles
- R94 — protection of the occupants in the event of a frontal collision
- R95 — protection of the occupants in the event of a lateral collision
- R116 — protection of motor vehicles against unauthorized use
- R10 — electromagnetic compatibility
- R51 — noise emissions
- R68 — measurement of the maximum speed
- R83 — emission of pollutants according to engine fuel requirements
- R84 — measurement of fuel consumption
- R85 — internal combustion engines or electric drive trains — measurement of the net power and the maximum 30 minutes power of electric drive trains
- R101 — measurement of the emission of carbon dioxide and fuel consumption
- R117 — rolling sound emissions of tyres
UNECE versus FMVSS
The most notable non-signatory to the 1958 Agreement is the United States, which has its own Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and does not recognise UNECE approvals. As such vehicles cannot be imported or exported between the U.S. and most of the rest of the world without appropriate modifications. Canada has its own Canada Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, broadly similar to the FMVSS, but Canada does also accept UNECE-compliant headlamps.
One of the most contentious differences is the design of headlamps; see that article for more information. The Citroën DS article offers a pictorial illustration of US-model vs. UNECE-model headlamps during the 1940-1983 era when US regulations required sealed beam headlamps.
It is not currently possible to produce a single car design that meets both UNECE and FMVSS approvals, but it is growing easier as both sets of regulations evolve. Given the size of the U.S. vehicle market, and differing marketing strategies in North America vs. the rest of the world, many manufacturers produce vehicles in three versions: North American, rest-of-world right-hand drive (RHD) and rest-of-world left-hand-drive (LHD).
- Fonctionnement de l'automobile
- Feux de route
- Éclairage automobile
- Sécurité routière
- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
- Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 108